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Detailed knowledge of sports shoes

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Knowledge of sports shoe materials

A pair of sports shoes have different functional effects according to different sports purposes. The application of soles and surface materials is very important.

1. Shoe upper material

The fabrics of sports shoes are about microfiber, natural leather, PU leather, nubuck, mesh and other categories.

(1) Superfine fiber

The texture is soft, and the performance is very close to natural leather, but it is more uniform in thickness and more regular than natural leather. It is one of the best materials in artificial leather.

(2) Natural leather

Natural leather is a generally recognized material. It is breathable, soft, peel-resistant, fold-resistant, cold-resistant, and durable. The disadvantages are flaws, many pores, irregular shapes and difficult to tailor. Natural leather has always been loved by people; for shoes There are many kinds of skins such as cowhide, pigskin, deer skin, ostrich skin, crocodile skin, snake skin and so on. Sports shoes generally use cowhide. Cowhide can be divided into first layer leather and second layer leather. The first layer is called pearl noodle leather, and the second layer is called Erlang leather or patent leather. Generally, the price of first layer leather is 3-5 times that of second layer leather.

(3) PU leather, nubuck

It is the most common material currently used in the market. PU leather is soft, flexible, good in hand, and shiny on the surface. The surface of the nubuck is mostly frosted, with rough hand feeling, less shiny and matte matte, and most of them are inelastic. Although nubuck and PU are different, they have their own characteristics when used.

(4) Mesh

It is mainly divided into three categories. The main material mesh is used in the exposed area of the upper surface. It is light and has good air permeability and bending resistance, such as sandwich mesh. Neckline accessories, such as velvet, BK cloth, and cloth accessories, such as Lixin cloth, are mainly characterized by wear resistance and good air permeability.

Note: The sole material and upper material of sports shoes are marked on the shoe box, which can be compared and studied.

Introduction to the classification and performance of sports shoe sole materials

Sole materials can be roughly divided into TPR, EVA, PU, PU cushions, and RB rubber soles. After the abbreviation is T.R.E.P.M


TPR pellets are heat-melted and then injection-molded. They are often used for jogging, slow walking, midsoles and outsoles of casual shoes.

Advantages: easy to shape and cheap.

Disadvantages: poor material, poor wear (not wear-resistant), poor flexibility, poor flexibility (not resistant to folding), and poor shock absorption.

(2) EVA

Advantages: vinyl acetate copolymer, polymer material. Commonly used in the midsole of jogging, slow walking, casual shoes, and foot training shoes.

Disadvantages: easy to absorb water, not easy to corrode, environmentally friendly, easy to get dirty. Generally combined with rubber outsole, otherwise it will not wear.

(3) PU

High-molecular polyurethane synthetic material can be directly used for casual outsoles.

Advantages: light weight, good elasticity, good flexibility, not easy to wrinkle, excellent coloring, suitable for various climates.

Disadvantages: easy to absorb water, not easy to corrode, not conducive to environmental protection, easy to get dirty. Generally combined with rubber in the outsole, otherwise it will not wear.


It belongs to EVA secondary high-pressure products, the main material used in the midsole of running shoes, tennis shoes and basketball shoes in the world.

Used for casual outsoles.

Advantages: light, flexible, fine appearance, good softness, easy to clean, hardness, density, tensile strength, tearing, and elongation.

Disadvantages: not easy to corrode, not conducive to environmental protection, easy to wrinkle and shrink at high temperature.

(5) Rubber sole

Used for outsoles of various sports shoes.

Advantages: good abrasion resistance, non-slip, elastic, not easy to break, good softness, good extensibility, stable shrinkage, good hardness, good flexibility.

Disadvantages: heavier weight, easy to spit frost (a quality problem), not easy to corrode (environmental protection problem).

Performance comparison: TPR has high specific gravity, heavier weight, average elasticity and average wear resistance. The rubber sole has a larger specific gravity, but it is softer, very wear-resistant, has strong grip, but has poor elasticity. It is generally used in indoor football and casual shoes. The EVA sole is light and elastic, but the elasticity decreases after wearing for a long time, and it becomes stable. a little. PU and MD bottoms are elastic and do not deform for a long time. They are more flexible during exercise, have a small specific gravity and are very light, so they are widely used (PU has a higher density than MD and has a better shock absorption effect, and it is also relatively heavier). Generally, the large film is made of rubber, which is wear-resistant and non-slip.

(6) Injection film

Also called outsole bracket, super support, anti-distortion and shock absorption effect. Generally can be divided into three types:

◎ Injection piece made of carbon fiber material: high hardness and density.

◎ Material injection film: It is a relatively soft material.

◎ Micro-injection PVC: Generally used to make small LOGO trademarks.

3. Decoration technology

A pair of shoes is composed of only the upper and the enlarged bottom, which is monotonous and dull. In order to make it full of characteristics and show different personality characteristics, people make various colors, patterns and shapes on the opposite leather surface. This is the craftsmanship. The craftsmanship mainly plays a decorative role, and can leave people with a sense of haziness, three-dimensionality, metal texture, speed and other beautiful feelings and aesthetic appeal. The current process can be divided into fourteen categories: high frequency (including eager high frequency), differentiation, hot pressing, injection, electric embroidery, printing, woven label, webbing, dripping, metal or plastic decoration, decorative thread and decorative hole, binding Edges, folds, and seams.

Here are a few specific ones:

①. High frequency: that is, the concave-convex shape is pressed on the plane. Hot-cut high-frequency, using transparent or opaque material to press on another material, open the mold, and carry out special processing. Therefore, the cost is higher and the production is more difficult, which is a comprehensive performance of the technical level.

② Differentiation: Differentiation enriches the diversity of colors and patterns, with obvious effects and strong appeal.

③ Hot pressing: strong modeling effect, sharp edges and corners, strong three-dimensional effect and long-term shaping.

④ Injection and drop plastic: Compared with injection, the drop plastic material is softer, while the injection material is tough and has a texture feel. Both require molds and high cost, but the result is very delicate and embellished. Infectious.

⑤ Electric embroidery: Also called embroidery, various decorative patterns are embroidered on the shoe upper, especially the LOGO of the pattern is usually embroidered by electric embroidery. Due to the complex technology and fine workmanship of good sports shoes, the cost is relatively expensive.

Professional knowledge of sports shoes

1. Sports shoe structure

Basic structure of sports shoes: A shoe is roughly composed of toe, upper (front, side), outsole, midsole, heel, lining, insole, tongue and various accessories.

----According to the height of the shoe mouth, it is divided into three types: low top, middle top, and high top.

2. Sports shoes design

A pair of elegant and beautiful shoes, in addition to its appearance style and color matching, the most prominent aesthetic in the shape is the style of the last. The design of shoe last styles is one of the primary design tasks in the process of shoe design and manufacturing. Without the new style design of shoe lasts, there will be no popular design of new styles of shoes. Shoe lasts are the soul of shoes.

The principle of shoe last design is based on the three-dimensional space of the foot shape, through appropriate and reasonable correction and design, so that the irregular three-dimensional space of the foot shape becomes a regular three-dimensional space of the shoe last.

Of course, among other factors that express the beauty of the appearance of the shoes, the quality of the selected materials can also make the shoes show an elegant sense of beauty. However, in the conditions that determine the fashion trend of shoes, the most important factor is none other than shoe last style.

3. Functional design of sports shoes

A, shock absorption effect

Refers to the effect that the sole absorbs the shock and shock when the foot is on the ground. For example, air cushions, PU, MD, EVR, etc. have shockproof functions, especially air cushions are generally valued by people. When a person’s foot falls on the ground, the impact force of the ground on the person’s foot is usually 2-3 times that of the human body, especially up to 10 times when bouncing, and a good shockproof device can reduce this impact. The MD air cushion shell is equipped with a certain Atmospheric pressure, when the sole of the foot lands, it can deform to disperse the impact force to achieve the effect of shock absorption. In order to avoid injury caused by excessive vibration.

B. Torsion system

When athletes turn, turn back, and move sideways, different parts of their footsteps will twist in different directions, which is very prone to sports sprains. Install a device with high-density materials on the inner part of the foot and the arch of the foot to prevent the foot from turning inward excessively during exercise and avoid sprains during exercise.

C. Energy return

This means that the sole of the shoe stores the energy generated by the ground, and the sole returns this energy to the foot immediately before the foot moves off the ground. Among them, the air cushion is the most obvious. When a person’s foot steps on the ground, the foot gives the air cushion energy, and the air cushion deforms after being stressed. When the foot is on, the air cushion helps the athlete through the energy rebound, so that the athlete runs faster and jumps higher.

D. Foot fit

Refers to shoe last design, structural design (such as upper and bottom stitching, important focus area structure, etc.) and the application of the superior expansion characteristics of various new high-tech materials (four-sided elasticity and Lycra) fabrics, making consumers feel comfortable and fit. .

E. Bending effect

There are many factors that affect the bending effect of a pair of shoes. The design of the upper, insole, midsole, and outsole will all affect the design. The general requirement is that the bending part should be consistent with the bending part of the foot, and conform to sports physiology and Principles of Kinematics.

F. Anti-slip effect

It refers to the anti-slip effect or grip of the outsole on the ground. When the anti-slip effect is insufficient, not only is it prone to slipping and causing sports injuries, but also affects the user's sports performance. The anti-slip effect is mainly reflected in the application of the substrate As for the design of the sole pattern, the setting and design of the anti-slip effect will be adjusted accordingly according to the different sports methods.

4. Various comfortable structural designs

A. Supports placed on the inner side of the sole: A undulating support pad is set on the arch of the sports insole to match the contour of the arch of the sole to achieve a supporting effect and reduce exercise fatigue.

B. Double-density center insert structure: control or correct the flipping phenomenon of the foot. The outer side of the sole uses a softer insert material to absorb the shock caused by the heel hitting the ground, while the inner side uses a harder material to prevent excessive foot Inward rotation, improve stability [qualitative. There are also hard materials on both sides of the heel part of the middle insert structure to strengthen the stability of the heel and control the flipping phenomenon of the foot.

C. Design and materials to keep the feet dry and comfortable: sweat absorption and sweat release effects, double-layer separation structure design inside the shoes, application of sponge and sweat-conducting mesh materials.

D. Waterproof effect of shoe material: design of heightening side wall, application of polymer PU material and environmentally friendly hydrosol. It also has the effect of enhancing the firmness of the joint part and facilitating cleaning; the air-permeable effect, the vent design, the microfiber, and the application of different air-permeable designs and different materials.

E. Ventilation, heat insulation, heat conduction, shock absorption, power assistance, etc. possessed by the structural design.

5. Sneakers size description

A. The formulation of Chinese shoe size: the shoe size based on the millimeter of foot length, one unit (yard) is equal to 6.6mm

B. Several representative shoe sizes in the world:

----French code: Calculated according to the length of the inner bottom, the length of one number is equal to 6.67mm;

----British code: Calculated according to the length of the insole, 1 inch = 25.45mm;

----U.S. size: U.S. size is also measured in inches, and the length is 9.00mm;

----Japan size: The Japanese size is measured in centimeters, and the size of the shoes can be worn as long as the feet are in centimeters.

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